Drnovsek-Olup B, Beltram M, Pizem J
Lasers Surg Med. 2004,35(2):146-51.
OBJECTIVE: Deep coagulation of skin collagen by Er:YAG laser repetitive pulses has been predicted by previous theoretical models and later demonstrated on animal skin. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of repetitive Er:YAG laser pulses on human skin and its response to this treatment.
STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lid skin of six female volunteers with blepharochalasis has been treated with laser at day 0, 7, and 21 before elective surgery-blepharoplasty. The treated skin was excised as part of the procedure and prepared for further histological examination. We used a 2,940 nm Er:YAG laser (Fidelis M320A by Fotona) with ‘smooth’ mode parameters: fluence from 0.50 to 2.00 J/cm2, six pulses per packet, 550 microsecond/pulse, 250 millisecond/packet, single pass, no overlapping, spot size 5 mm, repetition rate 20 Hz.
RESULTS: We observed deep collagen denaturation at laser fluences of 1.25 J/cm2 and over, epidermal damage was proportional to fluence with total coagulation of the epidermal layer at fluences of 1.75 J/cm2 and over. At day 7 after laser treatment we observed a complete regeneration of the epidermal layer and a regeneration zone within the dermis with prominent infiltration of CD68+ monocytes/macrophages. At day 21 after laser treatment we observed collagen remodeling and (myo-)fibroblast proliferation at tissue depths of up to 240 microm.
CONCLUSIONS: Repetitive Er:YAG laser irradiation is effective in deep denaturation and remodeling of human skin collagen in vivo, with less epidermal damage compared to standard Er:YAG laser skin resurfacing.