Periodontitis is the most common chronic inflammatory disease in European adults. Eight out of ten individuals over 35 suffer from some kind of gum complaint. It is associated with systemic diseases, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Although common, periodontal diseases are not very well acknowledged.
To date, mechanical therapy has been the general treatment for plaque-induced periodontal disease, however, many studies have shown that mechanical treatment itself does not lead to a complete healing because it does not eliminate the periopathogenes.
Laser therapy may constitute an efficient alternative to surgical treatment. Based on the research, data and experience of many practitioners, we can enumerate the potential advantages of laser therapy, such as bactericidal, detoxification and homeostatic effects and biostimulation. Laser treatment facilitates the eradication of bacteria and better wound healing.
It is also easy to use, provides good access to anatomically difficult areas and offers a comfortable treatment for patients.
High-energy lasers are applied in periodontal procedures as an adjunctive therapy or as an alternative to conventional procedures, and have become the standard treatment of periodontal pockets. Their effectiveness in eliminating periodontal pathogens and decreasing pocket depth is widely documented. The Neodymium:Yttrium–AluminumGarnet (Nd:YAG) laser with a wavelength of 1,064 nm can decontaminate periodontal pockets without causing necrosis or carbonization of the underlying connective tissue.  Periodontopathogens can persist within cells outside the pocket epithelium after conventional mechanical periodontal debridement, and Gianelli et al. reported that the Nd:YAG is capable of eradicating periodontopathogenic bacteria trapped within gingival epithelial cells.
Erbium:YAG (Er:YAG) laser, with a wavelength of 2,940 nm, has been applied for effective elimination of granulation tissue, gingival melanin pigmentation and gingival discoloration. This laser is also used for contouring and cutting of bone with minimal damage and enhanced healing . In addition, irradiation with the Er:YAG laser has a bactericidal effect with a reduction of lipopolysaccharides, it is efficient in calculus removal, with the effect limited to a very thin layer of the surface, and it is effective for implant maintenance.